ABSTRACT 

Cluster of differentiation 38 (CD38) is an ecto-enzyme expressed primarily on immune cells that metabolize nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) to adenosine diphosphate ribose or cyclic ADP-ribose and nicotinamide. Other substrates of CD38 include nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate and nicotinamide mononucleotide, a critical NAD+ precursor in the salvage pathway. NAD+ is an important coenzyme involved in several metabolic pathways and is a required cofactor for the function of sirtuins (SIRTs) and poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerases. Declines in NAD+ levels are associated with metabolic and inflammatory diseases, aging, and neurodegenerative disorders. To inhibit CD38 enzyme activity and boost NAD+ levels, we developed TNB-738, an anti-CD38 biparatopic antibody that pairs two non-competing heavy chain-only antibodies in a bispecific format. By simultaneously binding two distinct epitopes on CD38, TNB-738 potently inhibited its enzymatic activity, which in turn boosted intracellular NAD+ levels and SIRT activities. Due to its silenced IgG4 Fc, TNB-738 did not deplete CD38-expressing cells, in contrast to the clinically available anti-CD38 antibodies, daratumumab, and isatuximab. TNB-738 offers numerous advantages compared to other NAD-boosting therapeutics, including small molecules, and supplements, due to its long half-life, specificity, safety profile, and activity. Overall, TNB-738 represents a novel treatment with broad therapeutic potential for metabolic and inflammatory diseases associated with NAD+ deficiencies. 

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